The correlation-does-not-equal-causation problem in these studies also means that people with a high-risk lifestyle both seek sexual liaisons and substance use either because they have impulsive personalities or because they are anxious and depressed.
They were followed every 2 years until they were 15 and then again at ages 18, 21, 26, and They were asked to report on the number of sex partners at each interval as well, allowing the researchers to compute the number of partners per year.
With these data in hand, Ramrakha and team were able to calculate the odds of a participant developing a psychological disorder while controlling for earlier mental health problems at each test occasion. For both men and women, taking into account prior psychological disorders, the odds of developing substance dependence increased virtually linearly with the number of sex partners.
The relationship was particularly pronounced, however, for women. People having a higher number of sex partners did not have higher rates of anxiety or depression; the mental health effects were limited to substance use. You might be wondering how multiple is multiple in the sex partner equation. The sample distribution led the researchers to divide the number of partners into 3 groups on a yearly basis: However, some participants reported more than 10 in a given year.
The authors acknowledge that, even though they ruled out the effects of prior substance use on number of sex partners, the possibility remains that people living a risky lifestyle have a higher number of sex partners and, later on, develop mental health problems. The nature of casual sex relationships may, however, present a risk factor in and of itself. These relationships may be particularly likely to be impersonal, lacking in the potential to provide emotional fulfillment. People having a string of these relationships may turn to the self- medication provided by alcohol or drugs.
As the authors point out, drinking alcohol to cope with feelings of loneliness and despair can pave the way for later substance dependence. Although women and men are developing similar patterns of sexual behavior and substance use, particularly in this cohort, the effects were stronger for women, as I noted earlier.
It appears that the double standard is still alive and well. For women, having multiple sex partners still may go against what they regard as socially acceptable. They cope with their feelings of shame, embarrassment , and perhaps dissatisfaction by turning to the solace of alcohol and drugs, setting them up for the future development of a substance use disorder. The issue is particularly important for young women.
The double standard is probably not going away anytime soon. Therefore, women in particular might want to consider their reasons for becoming involved in frequent sexual pairings, and even more importantly, their feelings the morning after.
The benefits of a long-term study that follows people over the critically formative early years of life is that we can learn about ways to prevent mental health problems for people as they navigate the stressful years of early adulthood. With this knowledge, young adults, along with their parents and counselors, can perhaps be better prepared to seek intervention and pave the way for a less troubled, and more fulfilling, life to follow.
The relationship between multiple sex partners and anxiety, depression, and substance dependence disorders: Archives Of Sexual Behavior , doi: They cope with their feelings of shame, embarrassment, and perhaps dissatisfaction by turning to the solace of alcohol and drugs, setting them up for the future development of a substance use disorder.
I don't think this is necessarily just a question of a double standard. It could also be that having multiple sexual partners is more fulfilling for men than it is for women, and that could be why women with this lifestyle are more likely to turn to addicting substances.
The author's idea is more valid. The amount of fulfillment people get out of their sexual lifestyle depends on many factors and there is great variation from one woman to another, same as for men. I think we need to stop thinking female vs. Recognizing that sexual behavior is dependent on a myriad of factors for every individual, with gender simply being one, albeit an important one, seems to be the way forward.
The double standard will never disappear. There are double standards everywhere. Feminists are not interested in removing double standards benefiting women. Your pipe dream utopian society can only happen if you coerce people violently or not to follow your particular ideology.
You can't change the biology of human beings. Thousands and thousands of years of evolution can not be shaped by a month of feminist reeducation. Most, smart, well balanced, men are reluctant to invest in a promiscuous women to be his wife and mother of his children for very good reason. But, if they don't want a permanent relationship at some point, then they'll probably feel fine with their choices.
Frequently men have girlfriends and marry women who cheat on them anyway, so what's the difference? Plenty of men raise another man's child without knowledge! Women aren't that different to men, because we are single and we like sex should we stay celibate until Mr Right comes knocking?!
Nope you shouldn't stay celibate at all. Just have sex with me and when I run off on your dumb ass and leave you in tears. Are you so dense that you don't know the difference. I hope you are just ignorant and not stupid. Do you need someone to explain the difference between ignorance and stupidity too?
The difference is that the female always knows her child is hers and the male does not. This is an extremely unfair advantage for the female. This is the reason for SLUT shaming. Slut shaming helps to bring this biological advantage back into balance. Then we need a legal system that forces DNA paternity test upon the birth of a new baby. A man deserves the right to walk away from a SLUT without being called insecure for it. No man alive should have to pay for another mans DNA if he chooses not to.
Women want a fair shake, then give the men the same knowledge you get as far as knowing who the parents are. Or else shut up your freaking bitching and learn to deal with being called a slut. Just as men shouldn't have to put up with raising other men's children, women shouldn't have to put up with raising other women's children either.
It goes both ways. If you were stupid enough to f around and end up with a child - then that's your problem, not anyone elses's. I do not understand women who raise a man's child that isn't theirs. That's so desperate and sad. I'm sure it's the same feeling the other way around. You may want to stop projecting this much. You do not represent all women. All women aren't like you. Sex is the only activity where two people literally join together--physically, emotionally, and spiritually.
There is nothing casual about sex. A person, especially a woman, who has had many sexual partners, has joined with too many people, and will have difficulties bonding with a future husband. Hi Susan, The results you reported don't support your interpretation of the data. You stated that people with more sex partners did NOT experience elevated anxiety and depression.
If they had feelings of shame and embarrassment, wouldn't you predict greater anxiety and depression? A more parsimonious explanation for the data is that people who are more approach-motivated have more sex partners and are more likely to abuse substances. Dear Sibyl, The authors of the study offered this interpretation but they consistently emphasized that over the period of the study they did not observe increased risk of anxiety and depression.
The other point you made is a good one, which they also discussed, but based on the findings, they reached a different conclusion. If you'd like to see the original article, let me know and I can send it to you. Thank you for your comment! Hi Susan, I just downloaded and read the full original study.
All it showed was that people who admit having more sex partners admit to having substance abuse problems later in time. This is just a correlational study. Authors of this kind of longitudinal study like to make it sound like things that happen later in time substance abuse are caused by whatever they measured earlier in time number of sex partners. But there's actually no evidence of a causal relationship. The number of sex partners a person has and how much drinking or drugging a person does are very easy to lie about.
Most women under-report their number of sex partners. Most people of both genders lie under-report about how much they drink and whether they use drugs. The relationship shown in this article may be nothing more than response bias. In other words, people especially women who are honest about having sex with multiple partners are also forthcoming about their substance use. In the discussion, the authors admit that greater approach motivation which they call 'impulsiveness' could account for their results.
They don't present a shred of evidence against this perfectly plausible explanation, but they launch into unsupported speculation about 'interpersonal anxiety. It also did not provide any evidence for a cause of the correlation between sex partners and substance abuse. Hi again Sybil, Although this was not an "experimental" study no one will ever be able to conduct that one , I stand by the findings because it was such a remarkably well-controlled longitudinal investigation.
However, I do see your point. Again, thank you for sharing your comments and keeping the discussion going. I would like to know how one can consider sexual partners the precursor for alcoholism rather than the other way around? Then they claimed that the greater number of sex partners caused the drug problems.
Of course, the reality would be that the cereal-eating didn't cause anything. Instead, people who like convenient foods eat both cereal and fast food. Just because one event precedes another in time does not mean that the first even caused the second. This is basic stuff.
Dear Andrew, There was discussion about these in the original article, but to keep this to a reasonable length, I had to condense things. This is an excellent point. If you would like to see the original article, let me know by backchannel and I will send it to you. Why would you "pop" a Vicodin because of gonorrhea? Would you "pop" a Vicodin if you experienced any other setback in life? Those who would "pop" a Vicodin might pop it when any number of events happen that they feel overwhelmed and not just in the sexual arena.
I never "popped" a Vicodin when experiencing treatment of a STI twice many years ago, nor abused any substance to deal with the issue.
I'm right with you on the theory that women who are interested in sex with higher numbers of partners are subject to feelings of lower self-esteem when they compare themselves with societal expectations of "proper" female sexual behavior.
The idea that more partners equals more drug use and could be tied to that is interesting. I wonder if there's some kind of control group out there anywhere. I wonder if the study included categories for types of drugs turned to by the women, stimulants vs. My theory is that there's a group of people who are "hungrier" for experiences of all types, sexual and pharmacological as well as others and perhaps that is the group of women the study zeroed in on. There's certainly a group of males that parallel.
Do you really think that internalized feelings of stigmatization lead more promiscuous women to drugs? That double standard needs to go extinct if that's the case. Along with many other reasons, of course. The neurophysical consequences were not examined.
The women could very well be experiencing depression and anxiety from having a higher number of sexual partners because of the effects of oxytocin and the desire for bonding it instills, with the subsequent lack of bonding on offer from an unattached partner. In other words, there may be a biological basis rather than just a cultural one. There are no neurophysical tests for depression or anxiety. These conditions are diagnosed based on what people describe about their life experiences.
The number of sex partners over the years has slowed down, but I believe it exceeds men. And no, I never caught anything from any of them - not even a cold! I have never had a drug OK, Novocaine at the dentist's nor even a glass of alcohol in my entire life.
I am not an anxious person. I don't perceive myself as chronically depressed, and if I were, I'd be LESS likely to engage in sexual activity than more. I have never worked in the sex industry. Since I became a teen, I've been called "boy crazy. Perhaps in that cohort, their generalizations could be correct. More than any researcher has yet discovered! That's disgusting, and if you admit that to any prospective date, they will think as I do, like it or not.
It's not disgusting and you're not a whore. If you were male they'd be praising you. I could not understand how these conclusions were drawn. I also read a very shaming tone in this piece, assuming that having multiple sexual partners is unhealthy for women. I think we need to look at the double standards that are implicit in this piece that women having multiple sexual partners would lead to negative consequences for their mental health and also allow for the fact that women may find sex pleasurable, even with the hangover effect of shame that is all too common in this culture.
And how do you think this 'cultural' "double standard" arose? Now before anyone blasts me for 'shaming' or what-have-you, note that I agree you that this is not FAIR. But nature doesn't operate on the basis of fairness, and a study that points out an unfortunate reality doesn't make it less true. Double-standards can only exist when the two are equal. Until a woman realizes she is not the equal of a man, nor he of she, then they shall never understand which is correct answer above.
Mother Nature is fact; the female social contructs are horse-s-h-i-t. If you're turned off by a woman who's had multiple sex partners, the problem is your own. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted. For example, if the current year is and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year are available.
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ADULT SERVICES ESCORTS ESCORTDEPENDENTIf you'd like to see the original article, let me know and I can send it to you. Why does someone engage in sex to reassure herself when others do not resort to this device? While there is a correlation, it article title misleads by using the word 'effect'. Family Planning Perspectives31 In my mind, a healthier POV would be one that doesn't randomly mention that there is a double standard and also that there shouldn't be one. The present findings are far reaching, but should not be taken as the totality of the research necessary for understanding this phenomenon, sexual promiscuity. The Women's Movement was closely allied with the free love movement, whose advocates had a strong belief that a woman ought to be herself sovereign over her body.
N prostitutes promiscuous sex
The definition, although out dated, does provide us with an understanding of what promiscuous actually means. However a better definition provided by definitions. Both meanings provide a clear picture of what promiscuity entails. These definitions suggest that promiscuity is indiscriminate casual sex.
A better way to define this is having random sex with numerous partners without discrimination. Today, this meaning has negative connotations. People, women in particular, are termed a slut, whore, easy, someone who sleeps around, or been around the block a few times. Either way, promiscuity is a term used to describe someone who sexually liberated. The promiscuous person enjoys sex, has sex often and regularly, and will have multiple sexual partners. This person has sex with whom they want, when they want, and without question.
The promiscuous person is someone who has sex more than the average person. Prostitution, on the other hand, entails something different entirely. Although prostitution involves sex, the definition for this is clear and straight to the point. Consequently, prostitution is sex for money. Only when money is exchanged for sexual act is it then considered prostitution.
Until recently, many Americans did not talk about sex. It was something discussed behind closed doors. The topic was not up for discussion in classrooms nor was it something that could be observed on television. The topic of sex was considered taboo and spoken about in whispers. However, this was not always the case. As the United States continued to grow westward, so did brothels. Brothels are known for prostitution.
A brothel is a home that houses prostitutes and is a place where men can go to find and purchase sexual services.
Brothels were a norm a known part of society and social structure. Massachusetts and then Missouri became the first states to pass ordinances against prostitution. However in prostitution became illegal across the country when Congress passed the Page Act, Prostitution This prohibited sexual services for monetary compensation and the closing of brothels across the country.
As a result, prostitution and promiscuity are very similar in many ways. The obvious similarity between both definitions is sex. Both prostitution and promiscuity involves sex. From this perspective, it can be noted that prostitution entails promiscuity. To be a prostitute also means to be promiscuous. Someone who demands payment for sexual services is someone who has sex indiscriminately, with multiple partners, during casual encounters.
In this manner, all prostitutes are therefore promiscuous. However, someone who is promiscuous does not mean they are also a prostitute. A promiscuous person will have casual and indiscriminate sex because they want to and not for monetary compensation.
Once money is exchanged for sexual services, this makes the encounter prostitution. If money and compensation are not exchanged during casual and indiscriminate sexual encounters, then the individual is considered promiscuous. People who are prostitutes or promiscuous, engage in frequent sexual activities.
These encounters are often with people who are virtual strangers. Weather they meet online, at a bar, or a public event, often the two people are not familiar with one another. They do not know the intimate details of their lives or may not know their last name.
As a result, these encounters create risks and can be hazardous to their health and their lives. Many prostitutes and promiscuous people are at risk of being infected with sexually transmitted diseases. Incidentally, many of these sexually transmitted diseases describe the various people at risk. They do not differentiate one from the other and there is no significant difference between the two that minimizes the threat of illness, disease, or infection.
The risks are not associated with monetary compensation. Someone who is a prostitute is at equal risk as someone who is promiscuous. The common denominator here is the number of individuals the person comes into sexual contact with. The numbers and statistics for sexual contact and risk exposure are phenomenal.
However when we changed 5 sexual partners to 12 sexual partners the risk of exposure climbs significantly to an astounding 4, people Virgins For prostitutes and promiscuous people, they are at an even greater risk. Consider the prostitute or promiscuous person who has had sexual encounters with 75 or more people. Frequencies and means are computed on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics, and other variables. The rationale behind the chosen method is solely based on the data.
Multiple logistic regressions were selected primarily because the dependent variable is a binary one and the researchers wanted to establish likely factors that influence this variable. Employing logistic regression analysis, this study will examine factors associated with the method of contraception use among women with multiple sexual partners in Jamaica. Where H t- — current health in time period t, stock of health H t-1 in previous period, B t — smoking and excessive drinking, and good personal health behaviours including exercise — G o , MC t ,- use of medical care, education of each family member ED , and all sources of household income including current income.
In this case the dependent variable is a dichotomous one currently using a contraceptive method or not , which means that logistic regression can be applied to examine the factors that influence the dichotomous dependent variable. For this study, four factors determine contraceptive usage among women with multiple sexual partners:. Where MS denotes marital status, A means age at first sexual encounter, E represents employment status and S indicates social class.
The socio-demographic characteristics of the study population are presented in Table 1. Figure 1 show that Half of the commercial sex workers indicated that they had been sexually assaulted, and Table 2 presents information on the number of sexual partners, condom usage and frequency of condom usage with steady and casual partners.
However, information can be provided on those who indicated being sexually assaulted by age cohort: Table 3 presents information on age of respondent, years of schooling, age of menarche, coitarche, age when the person began using contraception and age of person with whom they had their first sexual intercourse. Table 4 presents information on possible factors, which account for the use of a contraceptive method.
Using logistic regression analyses, four variables emerged as statistically significant factors of method of contraception. Variables of Currently Using a Method of Contraception. Young women in Jamaica, as well as other developing nations, like China, are engaged in risky sexual behaviour that puts them at risk of contracting a STIs, cervical cancers and pregnancies. Simply put, risky sexual behaviour is directly linked to reduced health status, STIs, and cervical cancers, which make sexual practices among these women a public health matter.
This study is on reproductive health practices of women with multiple sexual partners and we found that There were clear dissimilarities between the survey of female undergraduate students in China and the study population. Inconsistent condom usage among female undergraduate Chinese students with multiple sexual partners was Emerging from both studies is the risky sexual behaviour of young women in Jamaica and China.
Using Wilks et al. They also found an increase in sexual transmitted infections STIs among those with multiple sexual partners, indicating the increasing risk factors associated with sexual promiscuity. Within the context of this study, that found an inverse association between age at first sexual encounter and method of contraception use. In this study, men who initiate sexual intercourse with adolescent women were about 10 years older. Although these males are older and more sexually experienced, they also have more material resources compared to the young women.
The socio-economic challenges faced by many Jamaicans, in particular those who are poor; include how to avoid the temptations of being lured by sexual predators, who offer material resources to alleviate the economic plight of vulnerable individuals. Early sexual initiation among young Jamaicans accounts for the number of multiple sexual relationships as the first relation may be an experiment.
Hence, it should come as no surprise that in the Caribbean, of the 7 million births in , 2 million were from young women 14 years and younger Jamaica, This indicates that teenage pregnancy is on the rise in the Caribbean region, and means more high school dropout among young females.
These are the national public health matters which we contend are unfolding in Jamaica as a result of sexual promiscuity. One of the findings which emerged from this work is the percentage of women who commenced commercial sex work during their secondary schooling. Embedded in this finding is how sexual promiscuity is a gateway to commercial sex work. Based on the findings, 3 in every 10 commercial sex workers in Jamaica admitted that this began during their school years and the average age of first sexual debut is during secondary school 16 years.
In fact, the behavior is associated with the social pressure of peer groups in regard to sexual initiation, sex traders recruiting school girls, social decay in the general society, and economic challenges faced by many families. Early sexual initiation, multiple sexual partners and sexual promiscuity are, therefore, by-products of socio-economic ills of the Jamaican society, and commercial sex work is a response to the economic challenges.
Even though education opens numerous opportunities for the recipient, the economic hardship of women in Jamaica is eroding this reality as many of them become engaged in illegal sex work and multiple sexual relationships in order to provide for themselves and their children. The poor are held in a vicious cycle of continuous poverty, and on the onset of health conditions poverty could extend to the family. Still, some of these women, although they receive gifts, money, material items and other articles, by being with men in a sexual relationship, it is not construed as commercial sex work.
In , inflation in Jamaica rose to This time was also the precursor to a threeyear economic recession which was from and it was that the data for study was collected by the Family Planning Board. Clearly the middle-to-upper class women were adversely affected by the high cost of living and economic hardship more than poor women.
The rationale for the previously mentioned perspective is enveloped in the sexual practices of women in the various social classes. Economic deprivation is, therefore, creating sexual promiscuity as can be demonstrated by the current findings.
This research found that employed women with multiple sexual partners were 5. These unemployed women are mostly educated at the post-secondary level in the middle-to-upper class who are in need of employment opportunities. It is a desire for socio-economic opportunities that is driving sexual promiscuity among educated-middle to upper class women and this account for their willing to have multiple relationships with economically stable men. Thus, unemployed women give men vetoing power over reproductive health, because they do not want the men to withdraw the needed financial and other forms of support.
We can deduce from Wilks et al. Embedded in economics of sexuality as well as sexual practice is the psychological state of unemployed women and how they surrender to the demands of the male because of the economics of survivability. The male, on the other hand, is able to play a psychological game with the female because of the economics of survivability, through which he is able to lure the female to acquiesce his demands.
It should not be surprising that poverty, which along with unemployment is higher in rural Jamaica, results in some residents engaging in more risky behaviour. Furthermore, men who have economic power, are more likely to be employed and receive greater emoluments, are still able to wield this power, even over their spouses. This is the opportunity cost of his economic provision for the household.
Poverty does not only have an impact on illness, it causes pre-mature deaths, lower quality of life, lower life and unhealthy life expectancy, low development, high rates of pregnancy and social degradation of the community World Health Organization, , including the commercial sex trade. Another by-product of poverty is multiple partner relationships, as women use these relationships to bridge the unemployment and poverty gap, and material deprivation Bourne, f.
The notion that poverty, material deprivation and unemployment are related to increase multiple sexual relationships is a reality. In , the Jamaican economy was in a significant economic downtown and Wilks et al. Wilks, Younger, Tulloch- Reid et al. Promiscuity is clearly a product of experimentation among youths and there is an obvious social stigma of this issue in many cultures.
Jamaica is a highly sexed culture as Wilks and co-authors found that 3 out of every 4 people had sexual relations at least once per month and 33 out of every women aged years had never had sex in the last 12 months, and among women aged years only 32 out of every had not have sex in the last year.
While poverty is frequently cited as rationale for the commercial sex trade, promiscuity is not a product of inconvenience as emerged from the current work. This work found that 75 out of every female Jamaicans aged years were of the middle-to-upper class — including 33 out of every from the wealthy class. The argument of poverty should not be used in a discourse on multiple sexual relations among female Jamaica as the evidence refutes this common sense or traditional notion. They also revealed that 8.
The highly sex culture is having an influence on young people, and older men are initiating sexual relations on young women, particularly those among the middle-to-upper class who are unemployed.
There are mental health issues in Jamaica, which emerged from this study that have never been discussed prior, related to the psychology of multiple sex partners. Studies from Ramrakha et al. Ramrakha, Paul, Bell et al. The present study is unable to refute the issue of substance dependence among people with multiple sexual partners, but national probability study in revealed that Males aged years old were at least two times more like to consume alcoholic beverages, use marijuana and smoke cigarettes compared to females of the same cohorts Wilks, Younger, Tulloch-Reid et al.
We can therefore deduce and extrapolate using Wilks et al. We surmise that the substance dependence of sexual promiscuous women is an indicator of poor psychological state and this may not go as far as depression as is found by Searle Searle, , but is equally refuted by Ramrakha et al.
In contemporary western societies, education is sold as a means of social mobility and success. It follows, therefore, that when education is attained by western women, if they are unemployed, particularly among the middle-to-upper class for long periods, they are likely to internalize their situation as failure and this results in psychological disorders. Clearly, there is a negative mood which is embedded in multiple sexual relationships. The reality among sexual promiscuous women in Jamaica is that they are unable to assist themselves economically and this must be having a negative impact on their psyche, and there the expression of substance use including alcoholic beverages is an indicator of the stressors, mental health issues among the women.
Jamaican women are experiencing sexually induced psychological disorders created by the economic environment. In Jamaica reproductive health matters have not caught onto the inclusion of psychiatric morbidity or mental health matters arising from sexual behaviours induced by the economy. A careful perusal of data collected by the Family Planning Board, which is the agency responsible for the collection of data on reproductive health matters, have not shown a single item on psychiatric morbidity in the sexual practices of women ages years old.
This study has highlighted the importance of the mental health issues surrounding sexual practices and as such psychiatric morbidity must be included as items on the questionnaire of the Family Planning Board.
With the primary agency not caught onto the inclusion of psychiatric morbidity in reproductive health matters, many sub-agencies have followed suit and this explains the shortfall in data collection on the matter. With no obvious statistical association between psychiatric morbidity and sexual practices of women ages to years, it is difficult to definitely state what obtains in this situation. In Wilks et al. Our study, on the other hand, showed that many of the women are educated, unemployed and from the middle-to-upper class.
Hence, sexual promiscuity could be an expression of their depressive state or their depressive state an indicator of sexual promiscuity. It is highly difficult to categorically and definitively prove which comes first; but the reality is, sexual promiscuity is associated with psychiatric morbidity. In order to understand this obvious linkage between the two aforementioned variables, we will examine some findings from Wilks et al.
Wilks and colleagues Wilks, Younger, Tulloch-Reid et al. Now, with such a high percentage of Jamaican women indicated that they were depressed in , there is evidence that heart attack is resulting in depression or vice versa, which is also the case for those who had a stroke or diagnosed with cancers. We can extrapolated from Wilks et al.
Hence, does sexual promiscuity increase the risk of psychiatric morbidity or does psychiatric morbidity make women more vulnerable for sexual exploitation by economically privileged men? Are the only psychological issues experienced my women with many sexual partners, those expressed above? The issue of sexual promiscuity among women goes deeper than the current expression to the 1 desire for acceptance and 2 cognitive development Cotterell, The present study found that for the participants of this study 1 the age of first coitus was Jamaican women who are engaged in promiscuous sexual relations commence their sexual journey at 16 years old, which is in the period of adolescence.
During this stage of development, they seek acceptance Cotterell, and not have a strong religious belief, they become susceptible to sexual lures of adults.
Adults are more likely to lure adolescents using material goods, owing to the economic vulnerability of the persons. The vetoing powers of powerful adults allow them to lure vulnerable young women into sexual activities because of the economic vulnerability of the young women, particularly the unemployed ones. So, we deduce from the current data, within the context of the literature that multiple sexual relationships among Jamaican women could eventually lead to depression this view is also forwarded by DiClemente et al.
DiClemente, Wingood, Crosby et al. Many of the women in this study have multiple sexual partners outside of commercial sex. This indicates mental health issues such as frustration, psychological trauma, early neglect, substance use, seeing oneself as a risk taker, and therefore sexual promiscuity is an expression of psychosocial challenges. The fact that many of the sampled women commence coitus at an early age, this can be due to childhood sexual abuse. This state of early mental trauma can be expressed by sexual promiscuity, a retaliatory or coping approach by the abused, or long-term distress and justify posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD as well as eating disorder Glasser et al.
The mental health issue of sexual promiscuity has not been examined in Jamaica; but Coid et al. Another study empirically established that Borderline Personality Disorder, along with consequences, are features of sexual abuse in childhood Yen et al.
In summary, risky behaviour among some women in Jamaica is a national issue because of the increased prevalence of STIs, teenage pregnancies, high school drop-outs, increased cervical cancers, psychiatric disorders and the cost to society. The fact that many of these women demand and utilize public health care services, this makes risky sexual behaviour a public health matters of national importance due to the potential increase in medical costs. Sexual promiscuity among Jamaican women has many mental health issues and consequences that must be taken into consideration when seeking to address risky sexual behaviour.
Serious efforts are needed to comprehend, alleviate and rectify these practices — education, training on the use of contraception, women empowerment through income generation, arresting sexual abuse during childhood, and financial independence. Women in Jamaica that are involved in promiscuity are unemployed, of the middle-to-upper class, engaged in sexual behaviour as early as in secondary school, infrequently use condoms and those are characteristics of the highly sexed women.
The present findings are far reaching, but should not be taken as the totality of the research necessary for understanding this phenomenon, sexual promiscuity.
A multilevel approach is needed to address multiple sexual partnerships among women in Jamaica, which should target middle-to-upper class women. This study should open the door for empirical inquiries on psychiatric morbidity and sexual behaviour among Jamaican women. This work has one limitation, the use of secondary data to examine a phenomenon.
The primary data were not collected for the current purpose. This dataset did not seek to examine psychological issues substance use disorder and psychiatric disorder and their influence on sexual expressions and so this is a major limitation for this study; but it can provide insights into the matter despite this limitation. The researchers would like to note that while this study used secondary data from the Reproductive Health Survey, any of the errors in this paper should be ascribed to the National Family Planning Board, but to the researchers.
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